Saturday, 26 April 2014

#ED THE PRICE OF INDECISION - OF DELAY - OF DOUBT - DARE U #EBOLA #ET

W.H.O. WARNING EBOLA PANDEMIC. STAY AWAY!

Pandemic


It starts as a rare case of some unknown illness, usually in an obscure area of the world so as not to be immediately recognized by the local medicine man. Then the cases grow and the incidences increase to a noticeable level. Once medical doctors are called in, they find that the disease has spread so quickly among locals that there is an “outbreak” of this disease. Treatment begins, lab tests are completed, however many of the patients are already dying. The incidence of infection from the “outbreak” increases at such a rapid rate, physicians are unable to keep up with the infection. Traditional treatments do not seem to stem the rate of incidence. Soon the outbreak becomes an “epidemic”. Laboratory tests reveal the worst. It is Ebola. If not stopped, the disease, with no cure, can cross borders within days, soon to become a Pandemic.



Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).Ebola HF is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genusEbolavirus. When infection occurs, symptoms usually begin abruptly.

The natural reservoir or carrier host of Ebola viruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa. Until now. There is a suspected case in Canada. A returning businessman from Africa has contracted a disease which mimics the symptoms of Ebola. But this virus is a new strain. Where did it come from? How quickly can it spread? That can be answered quite effectively" Continues.

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Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever(EHF) is the human disease caused by ebola viruses. Symptoms start 2 days to 3 weeks after contacting the virus with a fever, throat and muscle pains, and headaches. There is thennausea, vomiting and diarrhea along with decreased functioning of the liver and kidneys. At this point some people begin to have problems with bleeding.[1]
The disease is first acquired by a population when a person comes into contact with the blood or bodily fluids of an infected animal such as a monkey or fruit bat. Fruit bats are believed to carry and spread the disease without being affected by it. Once infected the disease may be spread from one person to another. Men who survive may be able to transmit the disease sexually for nearly 2 months. To make the diagnosis, typically other diseases with similar symptoms such as malariacholera and other viral hemorrhagic fever are excluded. The blood may then be tested for either antibodies to the virus, the viral DNA, or the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.[1]
Prevention involves decreasing the spread of the disease from infected monkeys and pigs to humans. This may be done by checking these animals for infection and killing and properly disposing of the bodies if the disease is discovered. Properly cooking meat and wearing protective clothing when handling meat may be helpful, as may wearing protective clothing andwashing hands when around someone sick with the disease. Samples from people with the disease should be handled with an extra degree of caution.[1]
There is no specific treatment for the virus with efforts to help people including giving the person either oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids. The disease has a high rate of death possibly up to 90%. It typically occurs in outbreaks and occurs in tropical regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Between when it was first identified in 1976 and 2012 less than 1000 people a year have been infected. The disease was first identified in the Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Efforts are ongoing to develop a vaccine; however, none exists as of 2014.[1]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Manifestation of Ebola begins with a sudden onset of an influenza-like stage characterized by generalmalaise, fever with chills, joint pain, muscle pain, and chest pain. Nausea is accompanied by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Respiratory tract involvement is characterized by pharyngitis with sore throat, cough,dyspnea, and hiccups. The central nervous system is affected as judged by the development of severe headaches, agitation, confusion, fatiguedepressionseizures, and sometimes coma.
Cutaneous presentation may include: maculopapular rash, petechiaepurpuraecchymoses, and hematomas(especially around needle injection sites). In general, development of hemorrhagic symptoms is indicative of a negative prognosis. However, contrary to popular belief, hemorrhage does not lead to hypovolemia and is not the cause of death (total blood loss is low except during labor). Instead, death occurs due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to fluid redistribution, hypotensiondisseminated intravascular coagulation, and focal tissue necroses.
The average time between contracting the infection and the onset of symptoms is 13 days, but can be as long as 25 days.[2]

Hemorrhage[edit]

All people infected show some extent of coagulopathy and impaired circulatory system symptomology.[3]Bleeding from mucous membranes and puncture sites is reported in 40–50% of cases,[4] while maculopapular rashes are evident in approximately 50% of cases.[3] Sources of bleeds include hematemesis,hemoptysismelena, and aforementioned bleeding from mucous membranes (gastrointestinal tractnose,vagina and gingiva). However diffuse bleeding (i.e. heavy) is rare; occurrence is usually exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract.[3][5]

Causes[edit]

EVD is caused by four of five viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, orderMononegaviralesBundibugyo virus (BDBV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Taï Forest virus(TAFV). The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is thought to be not disease causing for humans and therefore not discussed here.

Transmission[edit]

EVD is believed to occur after an ebolavirus is transmitted to a human index case via contact with an infected animal host[citation needed]. Human-to-human transmission occurs via direct contact with blood or bodily fluids from an infected person (including embalming of an infected dead person) or by contact with contaminated medical equipment such as needles[citation needed]. In the past, explosive nosocomial transmission has occurred in under-equipped African hospitals due to the reuse of needles and lack of implementation ofuniversal precautions[citation needed]. Aerosol transmission has not been observed during natural EVD outbreaks[citation needed]. The potential for widespread EVD epidemics is considered low due to the high case-fatality rate, the rapidity of demise of patients, and the often remote areas where infections occur.[citation needed]

Risk factors[edit]


Bushmeat being prepared for cooking in Ghana, 2013. Human consumption of equatorial animals in Africa in the form ofbushmeat has been linked to the transmission of diseases to people, including ebola.[6]
Between 1976 and 1998, from 30,000 mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods sampled from outbreak regions, noebolavirus was detected apart from some genetic traces found in six rodents (Mus setulosus and Praomys) and one shrew (Sylvisorex ollula) collected from the Central African Republic.[7][8] Traces of EBOV were detected in the carcasses of gorillas and chimpanzees during outbreaks in 2001 and 2003, which later became the source of human infections. However, the high lethality from infection in these species makes them unlikely as a natural reservoir.[7]
Plantsarthropods, and birds have also been considered as possible reservoirs; however, bats are considered the most likely candidate.[9]Bats were known to reside in the cotton factory in which the index cases for the 1976 and 1979 outbreaks were employed, and they have also been implicated in Marburg virus infections in 1975 and 1980.[7] Of 24 plant species and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[10]
The absence of clinical signs in these bats is characteristic of a reservoir species. In a 2002–2003 survey of 1,030 animals including 679 bats from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo, 13 fruit bats were found to contain EBOV RNA fragments.[11] As of 2005, three types of fruit bats (Hypsignathus monstrosusEpomops franqueti, and Myonycteris torquata) have been identified as being in contact with EBOV. They are now suspected to represent the EBOV reservoir hosts.[12][13]
The existence of integrated genes of filoviruses in some genomes of small rodents, insectivorous bats, shrews, tenrecs, and marsupials indicates a history of infection with filoviruses in these groups as well.[14]However, it has to be stressed that infectious ebolaviruses have not yet been isolated from any nonhuman animal.
Bats drop partially eaten fruits and pulp, then terrestrial mammals such as gorillas and duikers feed on these fallen fruits. This chain of events forms a possible indirect means of transmission from the natural host to animal populations, which have led to research towards viral shedding in the saliva of bats. Fruit production, animal behavior, and other factors vary at different times and places that may trigger outbreaks among animal populations.[15] Transmission between natural reservoirs and humans are rare, and outbreaks are usually traceable to a single index case where an individual has handled the carcass of gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker.[16] Fruit bats are also reported to be a treat eaten by people in parts of West Africa where they are smoked, grilled or made into a spicy soup.[13] The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals, and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.[17]
The virus has been confirmed to be transmitted through body fluids. Transmission through oral exposure and through conjunctiva exposure is likely[18] and has been confirmed in non-human primates.[19] Filoviruses are not naturally transmitted by aerosol. They are, however, highly infectious as breathable 0.8–1.2 micrometre droplets in laboratory conditions;[20] because of this potential route of infection, these viruses have been classified as Category A biological weapons.[21]
All epidemics of Ebola have occurred in sub-optimal hospital conditions, where practices of basic hygiene and sanitation are often either luxuries or unknown to caretakers and where disposable needles andautoclaves are unavailable or too expensive. In modern hospitals with disposable needles and knowledge of basic hygiene and barrier nursing techniques, Ebola has never spread on a large scale. In isolated settings such as a quarantined hospital or a remote village, most victims are infected shortly after the first case of infection is present. The quick onset of symptoms from the time the disease becomes contagious in an individual makes it easy to identify sick individuals and limits an individual's ability to spread the disease by traveling. Because bodies of the deceased are still infectious, some doctors had to take measures to properly dispose of dead bodies in a safe manner despite local traditional burial rituals.[22]

Virology[edit]

Genus Ebolavirus: species and their EVD-causing viruses
Species nameVirus name (Abbreviation)
Bundibugyo ebolavirus (accepted)[23]Bundibugyo virus (BDBV; previously BEBOV)
Sudan ebolavirusSudan virus (SUDV; previously SEBOV)
Taï Forest ebolavirusTaï Forest virus (TAFV; previously CIEBOV)
Zaire ebolavirus*Ebola virus (EBOV; previously ZEBOV)
Table legend: "*" denotes the type species and "accepted" refers to a taxon that has been accepted by the Executive Committee of the ICTV but that has yet to be ratified.

Genome[edit]


Electron micrograph of an Ebola virusvirion
Like all mononegaviruses, ebolavirions contain linear nonsegmented, single-strand, non-infectious RNA genomes of negative polarity that possesses inverse-complementary 3' and 5' termini, do not possess a5' cap, are not polyadenylated, and are not covalently linked to aprotein.[24] Ebolavirus genomes are approximately 19 kilobase pairs long and contain seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR.[25] The genomes of the five different ebolaviruses (BDBV, EBOV, RESTV, SUDV, and TAFV) differ insequence and the number and location of gene overlaps.

Structure[edit]

Like all filoviruses, ebolavirions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd's crook or in the shape of a "U" or a "6", and they may be coiled, toroid, or branched.[25] In general, Ebolavirions are 80 nm in width, but vary somewhat in length. In general, the median particle length of ebolaviruses ranges from 974 to 1,086 nm (in contrast to marburgvirions, whose median particle length was measured to be 795–828 nm), but particles as long as 14,000 nm have been detected in tissue culture.[26] Ebolavirions consist of seven structural proteins. At the center is the helical ribonucleocapsid, which consists of the genomic RNA wrapped around a polymer of nucleoproteins (NP). Associated with the ribonucleoprotein is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) with the polymerase cofactor (VP35) and a transcription activator (VP30). The ribonucleoprotein is embedded in a matrix, formed by the major (VP40) and minor (VP24) matrix proteins. These particles are surrounded by a lipid membrane derived from the host cell membrane. The membrane anchors a glycoprotein (GP1,2) that projects 7 to 10 nm spikes away from its surface. While nearly identical to marburgvirions in structure, ebolavirions are antigenically distinct.

Entry[edit]

Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) appears to be essential for Ebola infection. Two independent studies reported in the same issue of Nature showed that Ebola virus cell entry and replication requires the cholesterol transporter protein NPC1.[27][28] When cells from Niemann Pick Type C1 patients (who have a mutated form of NPC1) were exposed to Ebola virus in the laboratory, the cells survived and appeared immune to thevirus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1 to enter cells. This might imply that genetic mutations in the NPC1 gene in humans could make some people resistant to one of the deadliest known viruses affecting humans. The same studies described similar results with Ebola's cousin in the filovirus group, Marburg virus, showing that it too needs NPC1 to enter cells.[27][28] Furthermore, NPC1 was shown to be critical to filovirusentry because it mediates infection by binding directly to the viral envelope glycoprotein.[28] A later study confirmed the findings that NPC1 is a critical filovirus receptor that mediates infection by binding directly to the viral envelope glycoprotein and that the second lysosomal domain of NPC1 mediates this binding.[29]
In one of the original studies, a small molecule was shown to inhibit Ebola virus infection by preventing the virus glycoprotein from binding to NPC1.[28][30] In the other study, mice that were heterozygous for NPC1 were shown to be protected from lethal challenge with mouse adapted Ebola virus.[27] Together, these studies suggest NPC1 may be potential therapeutic target for an Ebola anti-viral drug.

Replication[edit]

The ebolavirus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes and the concomitant release of the virus nucleocapsid into thecytosol. The viral RNA polymerase, encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid andtranscribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then translated into structural and nonstructuralproteins. Ebolavirus RNA polymerase (L) binds to a single promoter located at the 3' end of the genome. Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3' end of the genome are transcribed in the greatest abundance, whereas those toward the 5' end are least likely to be transcribed. The gene order is, therefore, a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication results in full-length, positive-strand antigenomes that are, in turn, transcribed into negative-strand virus progeny genome copy. Newly synthesized structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane they bud from. The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle.[31]

Pathophysiology[edit]


Pathogenesis schematic
Endothelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes, and hepatocytes are the main targets of infection. After infection, a secreted glycoprotein (sGP) known as the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) is synthesized. Ebola replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and host immune defenses. The GP forms a trimeric complex, which binds the virus to the endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels. The sGP forms a dimeric protein that interferes with the signaling of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, which allows the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation. These white blood cells also serve as carriers to transport the virus throughout the entire body to places such as the lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen.[32] The presence of viral particles and cell damage resulting from budding causes the release of cytokines (to be specific, TNF-αIL-6IL-8, etc.), which are the signaling molecules for fever and inflammation. The cytopathic effect, from infection in the endothelial cells, results in a loss of vascular integrity. This loss in vascular integrity is furthered with synthesis of GP, which reduces specific integrins responsible for cell adhesion to the inter-cellular structure, and damage to the liver, which leads to coagulopathy.[33]

Diagnosis[edit]

EVD cannot be separated from Marburg virus disease based on symptoms. It can also easily be confused with many other diseases common in Equatorial Africa such as other viral hemorrhagic feversfalciparum malariatyphoid fevershigellosisrickettsial diseases such as typhuscholeragram-negative septicemia,borreliosis such as relapsing fever or EHEC enteritis. Other infectious diseases that should be included in the differential diagnosis include the following: leptospirosisscrub typhusplagueQ fevercandidiasis,histoplasmosistrypanosomiasisvisceral leishmaniasis, hemorrhagic smallpoxmeasles, and fulminant viral hepatitis.[citation needed] Non-infectious diseases that can be confused with EVD are acute promyelocytic leukemiahemolytic uremic syndromesnake envenomationclotting factor deficiencies/platelet disorders,thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpurahereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasiaKawasaki disease, and evenwarfarin intoxication.[34][35][36][37]
EVD's most important clinical indicator is the persons medical history, especially travel and occupational history and the patient's exposure to wildlife. EVD can be confirmed by isolating ebolaviruses from or by detection of ebolavirus antigen or genomic or subgenomic RNAs in patient blood or serum samples during the acute phase of EVD. Ebolavirus isolation is usually performed by inoculation of grivet kidney epithelialVero E6 or MA-104 cell cultures or by inoculation of human adrenal carcinoma SW-13 cells, all of which reacting to infection with characteristic cytopathic effects.[38][39] Filovirions can easily be visualized and identified in cell culture by electron microscopy due to their unique filamentous shapes, but electron microscopy cannot differentiate the various filoviruses alone despite some overall length differences.[26]Immunofluorescence assays are used to confirm ebolavirus presence in cell cultures. During an outbreak, virus isolation and electron microscopy are most often not feasible options. The most common diagnostic methods are therefore RT-PCR[40][41][42][43][44][45][46] in conjunction with antigen-capture ELISA[47][48][49][50][51] which can be performed in field or mobile hospitals and laboratories. Indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) are not used for diagnosis of EVD in the field anymore.

Classification[edit]

The genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were originally classified as the species of the now-obsoleteFilovirus genus. In March 1998, the Vertebrate Virus Subcommittee proposed in the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) to change the Filovirus genus to the Filoviridae family with two specific genera: Ebola-like viruses and Marburg-like viruses. This proposal was implemented in Washington, DC on April 2001 and in Paris on July 2002. In 2000, another proposal was made in Washington, D.C., to change the "-like viruses" to "-virus" resulting in today's Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus.[52]

Phylogenetic tree comparing the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus. Numbers indicate percent confidence of branches.
Rates of genetic change are 100 times slower than influenza A in humans, but on the same magnitude as those of hepatitis B.Extrapolating backwards using these rates indicates that Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus diverged several thousand years ago.[53] However, paleoviruses (genomic fossils) of filoviruses(Filoviridae) found in mammals indicate that the family itself is at least tens of millions of years old.[14] Fossilized viruses that are closely related to ebolaviruses have been found in the genome of the Chinese hamster.[54]
The five characterised Ebola species are:
Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV; previously ZEBOV) 
Also known simply as the Zaire virus, ZEBOV has the highest case-fatality rate of the ebolaviruses, up to 90% in some epidemics, with an average case fatality rate of approximately 83% over 27 years. There have been more outbreaks of Zaire ebolavirus than of any other species. The first outbreak occurred on 26 August 1976 in Yambuku.[55] The first recorded case was Mabalo Lokela, a 44‑year-old schoolteacher. The symptoms resembled malaria, and subsequent patients received quinine. Transmission has been attributed to reuse of unsterilized needles and close personal contact.
Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV; previously SEBOV) 
Like the Zaire virus, SEBOV emerged in 1976; it was at first assumed to be identical with the Zaire species.[56] SEBOV is believed to have broken out first among cotton factory workers in Nzara, Sudan(now South Sudan), with the first case reported as a worker exposed to a potential natural reservoir. The virus was not found in any of the local animals and insects that were tested in response. The carrier is still unknown. The lack of barrier nursing (or "bedside isolation") facilitated the spread of the disease. The most recent outbreak occurred in May, 2004. Twenty confirmed cases were reported in Yambio County, Sudan (now South Sudan), with five deaths resulting. The average fatality rates for SEBOV were 54% in 1976, 68% in 1979, and 53% in 2000 and 2001.
Reston ebolavirus (RESTV; previously REBOV) 
Discovered during an outbreak of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in crab-eating macaques fromHazleton Laboratories (now Covance) in 1989. Since the initial outbreak in Reston, Virginia, it has since been found in non-human primates in Pennsylvania, Texas and SienaItaly. In each case, the affected animals had been imported from a facility in the Philippines,[57] where the virus has also infected pigs.[58]Despite having a Biosafety status of Level‑4 and its apparent pathogenicity in monkeys, REBOV did not cause disease in exposed human laboratory workers.[59]
Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (TAFV; previously CIEBOV)
Also referred to as Taï Forest ebolavirus and by the English place name, "Ivory Coast", it was first discovered among chimpanzees from the Taï Forest in Côte d'Ivoire, Africa, in 1994. Necropsies showed blood within the heart to be brown; no obvious marks were seen on the organs; and one necropsy showed lungs filled with blood. Studies of tissues taken from the chimpanzees showed results similar to human cases during the 1976 Ebola outbreaks in Zaire and Sudan. As more dead chimpanzees were discovered, many tested positive for Ebola using molecular techniques. The source of the virus was believed to be the meat of infected Western Red Colobus monkeys, upon which the chimpanzees preyed. One of the scientists performing the necropsies on the infected chimpanzees contracted Ebola. She developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever approximately a week after the necropsy, and was transported to Switzerland for treatment. She was discharged from the hospital after two weeks and had fully recovered six weeks after the infection.[60]
Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV; previously BEBOV)
On 24 November 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebolavirus in theBundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the CDC, the World Health Organization confirmed the presence of the new species. On 20 February 2008, the Uganda Ministry officially announced the end of the epidemic in Bundibugyo, with the last infected person discharged on 8 January 2008.[61] An epidemiological study conducted by WHO and Uganda Ministry of Health scientists determined there were 116 confirmed and probable cases of the new Ebola species, and that the outbreak had a mortality rate of 34% (39 deaths). In 2012, there was an outbreak of Bundibugyo ebolavirus in a northeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. There were 15 confirmed cases and 10 fatalities.[62]

Prevention[edit]


A researcher working with the Ebola virus while wearing a BSL-4 positive pressure suit to avoid infection
Ebola viruses are highly infectious as well as contagious. Governments and individuals often quickly respond to quarantine the area while the lack of roads and transportation in many parts of Africa helps to contain the outbreak.[57]
As an outbreak of ebola progresses, bodily fluids from diarrhea, vomiting, and bleeding represent a hazard. Due to lack of proper equipment and hygienic practices, large-scale epidemics occur mostly in poor, isolated areas without modern hospitals or well-educated medical staff. Many areas where the infectious reservoir exists have just these characteristics. In such environments, all that can be done is to immediately cease all needle-sharing or use without adequatesterilization procedures, isolate patients, and observe strict barrier nursing procedures with the use of a medical-rated disposable face mask, gloves, goggles, and a gown at all times, strictly enforced for all medical personnel and visitors.[63] The aim of all of these techniques is to avoid any person’s contact with the blood or secretions of any patient, including those who are deceased.[64]
Vaccines have protected nonhuman primates. The six months needed for immunization impede counter-epidemic uses. In 2003, a vaccine using an adenoviral (ADV) vector carrying the Ebola spike protein therefore was tested on crab-eating macaques. The monkeys twenty-eight days later were challenged with the virus and remained resistant.[65] A vaccine based on attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus(VSV) vector carrying either the Ebola glycoprotein or the Marburg glycoprotein in 2005 protected nonhuman primates,[66] opening clinical trials in humans.[67] The study by October completed the first human trial, over three months giving three vaccinations safely inducing an immune response. Individuals for a year were followed, and, in 2006, a study testing a faster-acting, single-shot vaccine began; this new study was completed in 2008.[68] Trying the vaccine on a strain of Ebola that more resembles the one that infects humans is the next step.[citation needed]
The Food and Drug Administration has approved no candidate vaccines,[69][70][71] the most promising whereof are DNA vaccines[72] or derive from adenoviruses,[65] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[73][74][75] or filovirus-like particles (VLPs)[76] because these candidates could protect nonhuman primates from ebolavirus-induced disease. DNA vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines, and VSIV-based vaccines have entered clinical trials.[67][68][77][78]
Ebolaviruses are not transmitted by aerosol during natural EVD outbreaks. Without an approved vaccine, EVD prevention predominantly involves behavior modification, proper personal protective equipment, andsterilization/disinfection.
On 6 December 2011, the development of a successful vaccine against Ebola for mice was reported. Unlike the predecessors, it can be freeze-dried and thus stored for long periods in wait for an outbreak. The research is reported in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences.[79]

Endemic zones[edit]

The natural maintenance hosts of ebolaviruses are unidentified: primary infection cannot necessarily be prevented in nature. Avoiding EVD such risk factors as contact with bats or nonhuman primates therefore is highly recommended and may be impossible for inhabitants of tropical forests or people dependent on nonhuman primates as a food source.

During outbreaks[edit]

The most straightforward prevention method during EVD outbreaks is not touching patients, their excretions, and body fluids, or possibly contaminated materials and utensils. Patients should be isolated, and medical staff should be trained and apply strict barrier nursing techniques (disposable face mask, gloves, goggles, and a gown at all times). Traditional burial rituals, especially those requiring embalming of bodies, should be discouraged or modified.[63]

In the laboratory[edit]

Ebola viruses are World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. Laboratory researchers have to be properly trained in BSL-4 practices and wear proper personal protective equipment.

Treatment[edit]


A hospital isolation ward in Gulu,Uganda, during the October 2000 outbreak
No ebolavirus-specific treatment exists. Treatment is primarily supportive in nature and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing fluids and electrolytes to counter dehydration, administration of anticoagulantsearly in infection to prevent or control disseminated intravascular coagulation, administration of procoagulants late in infection to controlhemorrhaging, maintaining oxygen levels, pain management, and administration of antibiotics or antimycotics to treat secondary infections.[80][81][82] Hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin raised against EBOV has been used in Russia to treat a laboratory worker who accidentally infected herself with EBOV—but the patient died anyway.[83]Experimentally, recombinant vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) expressing the glycoprotein of EBOV or SUDV has been used successfully in nonhuman primate models as post-exposure prophylaxis.[84][85] Such a recombinant post-exposure vaccine was also used to treat a German researcher who accidentally pricked herself with a possibly EBOV-contaminated needle. Treatment might have been successful as she survived. However, actual EBOV infection could never be demonstrated without a doubt.[86] Novel, very promising, experimental therapeutic regimens rely on antisense technology. Both small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) targeting the EBOV genome could prevent disease in nonhuman primates.[87][88]
During an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1995, seven of eight patients having received blood transfusions from convalescent individuals survived.[89] However, this potential treatment is considered controversial.[56]

Prognosis[edit]

In general, outcomes are poor with 68% of all cases resulting in death. If an infected person survives, recovery may be quick and complete, or prolonged with long term problems, such as inflammation of the testiclesjoint painsmuscle painsskin peeling, or hair loss. Eye symptoms, such as light sensitivityexcess tearingiritisiridocyclitischoroiditis and blindness have also been described. EBOV and SUDV may be able to persist in the sperm of some survivors, which could give rise to secondary infections and disease viasexual intercourse.[1]

Epidemiology[edit]

Outbreaks of EVD have occurred mainly in Africa.
Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks
YearVirusGeographic LocationHuman DeathsCasesCFR (case-fatality risk)
1976SUDVJubaMaridi, Nzara, and Tembura, Sudan15128453%
1976EBOVYambukuZaire28031888%
1977EBOVBonduni, Zaire11100%
1979SUDVNzara, Sudan223465%
1988EBOVPorton DownUnited Kingdom [laboratory accident]010%
1994TAFVTaï National ParkCôte d'Ivoire010%
1994–1995EBOVWoleu-Ntem and Ogooué-Ivindo ProvincesGabon325262%
1995EBOVKikwitZaire24531777%
1996EBOVMayibout 2, Gabon213168%
1996EBOVSergiyev PosadRussia [laboratory accident]11100%
1996–1997EBOVOgooué-Ivindo ProvinceGabonCuvette-Ouest DepartmentRepublic of the Congo466274%
2000–2001SUDVGuluMbarara, and Masindi DistrictsUganda22442553%
2001–2002EBOVOgooué-Ivindo ProvinceGabonCuvette-Ouest DepartmentRepublic of the Congo9712478%
2002EBOVOgooué-Ivindo ProvinceGabonCuvette-Ouest DepartmentRepublic of the Congo101191%
2002–2003EBOVCuvette-Ouest DepartmentRepublic of the Congo;Ogooué-Ivindo ProvinceGabon12814390%
2003–2004EBOVCuvette-Ouest DepartmentRepublic of the Congo293583%
2004EBOVKoltsovoRussia [laboratory accident]11100%
2004SUDVYambio County, Sudan71741%
2005EBOVCuvette-Ouest DepartmentRepublic of the Congo91182%
2007EBOVKasai Occidental Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo18626471%
2007–2008BDBVBundibugyo DistrictUganda3911634%
2008–2009EBOVKasai Occidental Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo153247%
2011SUDVLuweero DistrictUganda11100%
2012SUDVKibaale District, Western Uganda172471%
2012BDBVOrientale ProvinceDemocratic Republic of the Congo346254%
2014EBOVSoutheastern GuineaSierra Leone[90]12120061%

CDC worker incinerates med-waste from Ebola patients in Zaire in 1976
While investigating an outbreak of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in November 1989, an electron microscopist from USAMRIID discovered filoviruses similar in appearance to Ebola in tissue samples taken from crab-eating macaque imported from the Philippines to Hazleton Laboratories Reston, Virginia.[91]
Blood samples were taken from 178 animal handlers during the incident.[92]Of those, six animal handlers eventually seroconverted. When the handlers failed to become ill, the CDC concluded that the virus had a very low pathogenicity to humans.[93]
Because of the virus's high mortality, it is a potential agent for biological warfare.[94]
Given the lethal nature of Ebola, and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has the potential to be weaponized for use in biological warfare.[95]
The BBC reports in a study that frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted in the deaths of 5,000 gorillas.[96]

2007 to 2011[edit]

As of 30 August 2007, 103 people (100 adults and three children) were infected by a suspected hemorrhagic fever outbreak in the village of Kampungu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The outbreak started after the funerals of two village chiefs, and 217 people in four villages fell ill. The World Health Organization sent a team to take blood samples for analysis and confirmed that many of the cases are the result ofEbolavirus.[97][98] The Congo's last major Ebola epidemic killed 245 people in 1995 in Kikwit, about 200 miles (320 km) from the source of the August 2007 outbreak.[99]
On 30 November 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the Bundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization confirmed the presence of a new species ofEbolavirus, which is now tentatively named Bundibugyo.[100] The epidemic came to an official end on 20 February 2008. While it lasted, 149 cases of this new strain were reported, and 37 of those led to deaths.
An International Symposium to explore the environment and filovirus, cell system and filovirus interaction, and filovirus treatment and prevention was held at Centre Culturel Français, Libreville, Gabon, during March 2008.[101] The virus appeared in southern Kasai Occidental on 27 November 2008,[102] and blood and stool samples were sent to laboratories in Gabon and South Africa for identification.
On 25 December 2008, a mysterious disease that had killed 11 and infected 21 people in southern Democratic Republic of Congo was identified as the Ebola virus.[103] Doctors Without Borders reported 11 deaths as of 29 December 2008 in the Western Kasai province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, stating that a further 24 cases were being treated. In January 2009, Angola closed down part of its border with DRC to prevent the spread of the outbreak.[104]
On 12 March 2009, an unidentified 45-year-old scientist from Germany accidentally pricked her finger with a needle used to inject Ebola into lab mice. She was given an experimental vaccine never before used on humans. Since the peak period for an outbreak during the 21-day Ebola incubation period has passed as of 2 April 2009, she has been declared healthy and safe. It remains unclear whether or not she was ever actually infected with the virus.[105]
In May 2011, a 12-year-old girl in Uganda died from Ebola (Sudan subspecies). No further cases were recorded.[106]

2012 outbreaks[edit]

In July 2012, the Ugandan Health Ministry confirmed 13 deaths due to an outbreak of the Ebola-Sudan variant[107] in the Kibaale District.[108] As of 28 July 2012, 14 out of 20 (70% mortality rate) had died in Kibaale.[109] On July 30, Stephen Byaruhanga, a health official in Kibaale District, said the Ebola outbreak has spread from one remote village to several villages.[110]
The World Health Organization's global and alert response network reported on August 3 that the suspected case count had risen to 53, including 16 deaths. Of these cases, five were confirmed by UVRI as Ebola cases. There have been no confirmed cases outside of Kibaale District except for a patient who was medically evacuated to Kampala District and has since died. WHO and CDC support is on the ground in Uganda supporting the government response. There have been no confirmed cases outside of Uganda.[111]Included among the populations confirmed to be affected are prisoners in Kabbale prison. One of the inmates suspected of infection escaped from medical isolation on the same day.[112] Dr. Joaquim Saweka, the WHOrepresentative to Uganda, also reported that the outbreak was then under control and that everyone known to have had contact with a known Ebola patient is now in isolation.[113]
On 8 August 2012, the Ugandan Ministry of Health has recorded 23 probable and confirmed cases, including 16 deaths. Ten cases were confirmed by the Uganda Virus Research Institute as Ebola. 185 people who came into contact with probable and confirmed Ebola cases are being followed up during the incubation period of 21 days.[114]
On 17 August 2012, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported an outbreak of the Ebola-Bundibugyo variant[115] in the eastern region.[116] By August 21, the WHO reported a total of 15 cases and 10 fatalities.[117] No evidence suggests that this outbreak connects to the Ugandan outbreak.[118]By 13 September 2012, the World Health Organisation revealed that the virus had claimed 32 lives and that the probable cause of the outbreak was tainted bush-meat hunted by local villagers around the towns of Isiroand Viadana.[119]

2014 outbreak[edit]

In February 2014, a strain of the Ebola Virus appeared in Guinea. This is the first Ebola virus outbreak registered in the region. As of April 10, 157 suspected and confirmed cases and 101 deaths have been reported in Guinea, 22 suspected cases in Liberia including 14 deaths, 8 suspected cases in Sierra Leoneincluding 6 deaths, and 1 suspected case in Mali.[120][121] Investigations on these are under way.[122][123][124]

History[edit]


Cases of ebola fever in Africa from 1979 to 2008.
Ebola virus first emerged in 1976 in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire and Sudan.[125] The strain of Ebola that broke out in Zaire has one of the highest case fatality rates of any human virus, roughly 90%.[126]
The name of the disease originated from one of those first recorded outbreaks in 1976 in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Zaire) which lies on the Ebola River.
The Philippines and the United States had no previous cases of infection, and upon further isolation it was concluded to be another strain of Ebola or a new filovirus of Asian origin, and named Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) after the location of the incident.
Some scientists also believe that the Plague of Athens, which wiped out about a third of its inhabitants during the Peloponnesian War, may have been caused by Ebola. However, these studies are conflicting, and point to other possible diseases such as typhoid.[127]

Other animals[edit]

In general, outbreaks of EVD among human populations result from handling infected wild animal carcasses. In general, declines in animal populations precede outbreaks among human populations. Since 2003, such declines have been monitored through surveillance of animal populations with the aim of predicting and preventing EVD outbreaks in humans.[128] Recovered carcasses from gorillas contain multiple Ebola virus strains, which suggest multiple introductions of the virus. Bodies decompose quickly and carcasses are not infectious after three to four days. Contact between gorilla groups is rare, suggesting transmission among gorilla groups is unlikely, and that outbreaks result from transmission between viral reservoir and animal populations.[129]
Outbreaks of EVD may have been responsible for an 88% decline in tracking indices of observed chimpanzee populations in 420 square kilometer Lossi Sanctuary between 2002 and 2003.[129] Transmission among chimpanzees through meat consumption constitutes a significant 5.2 (1.3–21.1 with 95% confidence)relative risk factor, while contact between individuals, such as touching dead bodies and grooming, do not.[130]

Domestic animals[edit]

Ebola virus can be transmitted to dogs and pigs.[131] While dogs may be asymptomatic, pigs tend to develop clinical disease.

Recent research[edit]

In late 2012, Canadian scientists discovered that the deadliest form of the virus could be transmitted by air between species.[132] They managed to prove that the virus was transmitted from pigs to monkeys without any direct contact between them, leading to fears that airborne transmission could be contributing to the wider spread of the disease in parts of Africa. Evidence was also found that pigs might be one of thereservoir hosts for the virus; the fruit bat has long been considered as the reservoir.[132]

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    Related news article:
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Bibliography

External links[edit]



Can you HANDLE the REAL REALITY?

Secret Space War XVI: The Draco’s Secret War Against American Goyim

by Preston James


Bait and switch: World Zionists (WZs) labeling Khazarian Imposters “Descendents of Abraham”.
alien-alpha-draconian3World Zionists have labeled Khazarian Imposters as the real “Descendents of Abraham” in order to form a tyrannical Racial Delusion and Criminal Conspiracy against those they wrongly believe are “American Goyim”.
And also against all those who are the actual descendents of Abraham including Arabs and Palestinians who actually are the real descendents of Abraham.
World Zionists have worked hard to create a sinister Racial Delusion in Khazarian Judaic Converts to foster the attack, asset stripping, tyrannizing, capture, and eventual mass eradication of the real ancient Abrahamic bloodlines which actually have scattered, disseminated and diffused over most of Planet Earth.
Note: This has been a difficult article to write and unless folks are up to speed on the information contained in earlier articles on Secret Space War, they will likely find it incomprehensible, incredulous and a complete waste of time. It’s no use arguing against a shadow. Unless you have a working knowledge of Secret Space War issues, please stop reading this article and do not waste your valuable time.*
This is a long article and those with limited time may want to read only the bold print headers.
Unbeknownst to most, there has been a Secret War being waged against “American Goyim” by a grotesquely evil, Cosmic Alien Force centuries old and known only to top insiders as the Dracos or the “Great Serpents of Old” or the “Fallen Ones”.
These Dracos are reported by some to be Shape-Shifting Inter-dimensional “Fallen Angels” or “Cosmic Parasites” which are negative-energy vampires, exceedingly evil beyond what most can imagine and duplicitous beyond normal human reason.
They are experts at convincing the public that black is white, and white is black, good is evil, and evil is good. And the worst part is that they have apparently gained control of the most of the earth riches by hijacking most of the Monetary Production and Distribution Systems under the power of the Draco ancient Babylonian Money-Magick or applied Black-Magic Arts.
Their specialty is manufacturing and distributing mass Mind-kontrol culture by Hollywood and Television which conditions humans to enjoy behaving in self-destructive ways that also destroy their families, sex roles, religion and nations. They are believed to be parasites that feed off of the negative energy of great pain and long term suffering of humans.
These Dracos are reputed to be able to induce this massive human suffering and fast-kill and slow-kill death in many different varieties.
They do this by the use of ultra-high tech Mass Mind-kontrol, Psi-power, administration of Black-Magick spells, induced manufactured long term illness through aerosol spraying, pollution, contaminated or poisonous vaccines, fluoride in the water, aspartame and other bio-chemical and chemical means designed to slow-kill humans by the masses.
The short term goal of the Dracos has always been to create as much human suffering and painful mass death as possible.
These methods are also used to create the massive suffering and early death which provide the negative energy these Cosmic Vampires the Dracos need to thrive. The more negative energy they get from suffering and dying humans and animals, the more energy and power they receive to further their anti-human agenda of suffering, death and total destruction of all who they identify as “Goyim” and eventually all humans even their own Cutouts and kingpins. More on whom and how they have selected and targeted Goyim as targets later on, which itself is a very big deception and lie. Also later on will be covered the subject of how and when these Dracos descended to Planet Earth and how long they have been here wreaking havoc on Mankind.
One of the Dracos main long term agendas is to allegedly depopulate the earth and replace humans with a very small number of their Draco-human hybrids and custom designed, engineered and cloned biological androids and trans-humans which are biological machines.
These “creatures of the night” are alleged to receive optimal feeding by the generation of the highest levels of painful death possible, with the best means that artificially induced by war, mass-murder, or murder with those dying violent and exceedingly painful deaths.
Yes, there appears to have been an Evil Alien Agenda being unleashed on Planet Earth by a Cosmic Parasite known to top insiders as the Dracos for at least the last 4,000 years, and this alien entity feeds off of human suffering and painful human death.
If you doubt the high level control now exercised by these alien Cosmic parasites, just take a look upward and anyone can easily see the aircraft often spraying chem-trails in a criss-crossing pattern over America. Who has the power to induce the SSG to deploy such a major operation which impacts the whole earth? When you figure this out what these chem-trails are comprised of and how harmful it is to humans, and what criminal cabal is doing this under whose power and instructions, then you are at least half way there.
The Evil Empire of the Soviet Union as well as the criminal Central Bankster System run out of the City of London have all been part of this Evil, anti-human Agenda of the Dracos, the inter-dimensional fallen angel parasites that are alleged to have hijacked the Twelve Ruling-class “Bloodlines”.
The Draco’s chief creation and current claim to fame is World Zionism, the plague of Mankind and known to top insiders as the “Synagogue of Satan”.
38783-israel-killing-machine2World Zionism has been their chief creation and their main vehicle to generate a Racial Delusion among their selected Cutouts (Puppet world leaders and top Policy-Makers) as well as many Judaics which further their cause of destroying humankind and replacing it with Draco-human hybrids and trans-human type “hived” cloned androids. World Zionism has been alleged to have become secretly obsessed will mass murdering all Goyim.
The Dracos have allegedly hijacked most of Planet earth through their central banking debt-based pernicious usury system of Babylonian Money-Magick and used this network to further their anti-human Alien Agenda.
But the Draco’s evil anti-human agenda is specifically targeted to those they secretly identify as “Goyim” which they believe carry true ancient Hebrew blood coming from Abraham and they target as their ancient enemies. This involves most Palestinians and most Arabs as well as most Europeans and Americans. As strange and counter-intuitive as this seems there may be ample background to support this assertion.
Why, you might ask? Because there is substantial evidence that the various ancient Hebrew Tribes scattered during the Diaspora migrated to Europe and America where they greatly intermixed. This has been previously written about as the missing tribes but has been largely ignored or considered to be bunk. This is a mistake to ignore these because such an assertion is accurate. It is true that some with ancient Hebrew Blood remained in Palestine or migrated to other Arab nations or to Spain.
The Ancient Hebrew tribes were spread out during the Diaspora after the destruction of their Temple.
But for the most part these different Abrahamic or ancient Hebrew Tribes spread out and migrated all over Europe and the Western World. So the true Semites are Palestinians (recent peer-reviewed John Hopkins genetic research done by an esteemed shows that approximately 80% of Palestinians have ancient Hebrew Haploids and are thus true Semites, while approximately 90% of Israelis who claim to be Semites have essentially no ancient Hebrew Haploids).
And to further complicate this double-minded duplicitous deception, enter the Khazarians. These are the converts to Judaism from Khazaria or Eastern Russia which have been induced by the Dracos to believe they are of ancient Hebrew Blood and have migrated all over the world and to Palestine in parallel mimicking the migration of the true tribes of the ancient Hebrews of Abraham. Numerous historians now consider these Khazarian converts to be the fake Judaics or the Judaic impersonators of Revelation 2:9 and 3:9.
One of the greatest tricks in History is the Dracos use of selecting and designating “imitation secents of ancient Hebrew Abrahamic bloodlines which have actually been the fake Khazarian Judaic converts (of Revelation 2:9 and 3:9).
This parallel duplicitous migration and scattering of the true Tribes of the ancient Hebrew Abrahamic bloodlines has perhaps been used a part of the greatest racial deception in history. It has been imposed on the Khazarians who have been hijacked by these Dracos which is their specialty.
By hijacking a certain key and select group of top Khazarians who are believed by numerous insiders to be remnants of the “Synagogue of Satan”, the men were projected to be Illuminati or Top Policy-Makers of the European Old Black Nobility that formed an alliance with lucifer through interconnected occult or Black-Magic circles. Once these top policy-Makers of the Old Black Nobility were anointed with the Draco’s pure luciferian power, they were able to use their Psi-power and Black Arts to hijack the British Banking System and use this as a springboard to take over most of the world through their fiat based pretend money system based on Babylonian Black-Magick.
One key aspect of these habitual hijackers of everything that determines human policy is their commitment and practice to use the Kings and Queens and the various world Royalty bloodline families of the world to serve as nexus/”points of control”. The Draco leaders know that it is essential that they keep the world organized into hierarchies run by the top policy-Maker leaders of the world which must be Illuminati or Royal Bloodlines linked to Draco heritage.
Dracos are reputed to be very hierarchical, bureaucratic and rigid, operating by age old formulas used to hijack, take down, manipulate and destroy peoples, cultures and nations.
That is their age-old game and it is a game of death, of Cosmic Parasites and ultimate Evil that knows no bounds. They also masters at creating racial delusions which are used to cut and divide and provide all kinds of evil motivations to manipulate and promote mass was, totalitarianisms, Bolshevism and neo-Bolshevism, Fascism in many different varieties, and abusive off-shore run Oligarchies disguised as out of control Capitalistic Bureaucracies.
Allegedly the Dracos created a master racial delusion by World Zionists (WZs) which is now in place in America and which involves the creation and deployment of the obviously Neo-Bolshevik Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS was set up by Israeli-American (Israeli Firster) dual citizens with an evil Draco Agenda to tyrannize, and eventually haul off most innocent “American Goyim” to FEMA and US Military prison camps, where they will eventually be mass-murdered. This is the secret agenda of DHS who was set up and is now secretly run by World Zionists representing the International Zionist Crime Syndicate (IZCS) the largest crime syndicate in the world, run out of Israel (Palestine) and is the main Cutout and Action-agent of the City of London Zionist Central Banksters.
3d230d44Is a racial delusion and a deep demonic fantasy driving a secret Top Policy of the SSG which is and obsession to militarize the American police, construct numerous FEMA and Military Internment Camps across America, and build up the DHS, which is actually a Zionist outpost and foreign run army inside America?
Allegedly these top “Circle of twelve’s” deepest demonic fantasy is to load what they define as Goyim into trucks and take them to FEMA camps and do exactly what they believe was done to “their people” in Germany by Goyim? Of course many now realize this was the City of London World Zionist (WZ) Central Banksters set up the Bolshevik Revolution in the first place, followed by the Nazi regime (Hitler was a British Agent)and then set up the whole Internment Camp situation and created the Holocaust (translated from old English as a “Fiery Sacrifice”).
It is now known the Internment (work camps) in Germany had plenty of non-Judaics interred there two part of a devious WZ plan to create a racial holocaust to be used to manipulate money and power from surviving Judaics and a tool to radicalize them to serve as their action-agents against “Goyim” everywhere?
Obviously an important part of the Draco’s evil Cosmic Agenda to take control of the whole Earth using Khazarian Cutouts was to infect them with this racial delusion fostered by the pre-planned WZ deployment of Interment camps and the inculcation of the Big Lie and delusion that they are the true ancient Hebrews that the “Goyim” (who are actually the true descendents of Abraham) tried to eradicate them.
Has the Secret Shadow Government (SSG) been hijacked by the Dracos and is it now serving their evil, anti-human Agenda?"
Continues.
PRESTON JAMES, saving COSMIC HUMANS :) 
Remote Viewing Reptilian Consciousness ? Tim Rifat 1999

And finally, sorry about the formatting, no time. OPERATION BLACKHEATH

hashtag on SOCIAL media = #OpBLACKHEATH

And an Operation of .... The White Rabbit! :)  How I **HAVE(** to have YOUR PERSONAL HELP **TODAY** to save lives, once through the update ... right NEXT, from one of THE WHITE HATS, now writing on PROJECT CAMELOT .. as "PALADIN" :) hey, everyone needs a NYM when dealiing with the BIGGEST TOTAL BASTARDS in the KNOWN COSMOS! :)  Yes, yes, it's TRUE! :) xx

What happened to THE WHITE HATS report 48 ... 

ABOUT 48 - PALADIN SPEAKS OUT

23 Apr 2014 09:07 Written by Kerry Cassidy Category: Paladin

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About 48…

First of all, I’m going to try to do better with getting articles up here at Project Camelot. When Kerry offered the opportunity to write a column and express my views and information I was both flattered and inspired. Personal issues and a very nasty winter have conspired to dampen my enthusiasm in addition to my inherent nature of being very mindful of providing information before vetting it thoroughly. Yeah, I’m a nuts and bolts kind of guy. Blame it on my background and life experience of performing all kinds of investigations for over 30 years. In my field of endeavor, opinions are completely worthless and lack standing. It’s all about proof and documentation and the ability to not only present the information so that the readers can fully understand it but also arrive at their own conclusions based on solid evidence.

Before I get into the gist of this article, I want to clarify a couple of things regarding my interview with Kerry on bitcoins. For one, I failed to emphasize that bitcoin was just an example and not the focus of an alternative currency that creates a direct threat to the cabal’s central bankers and their control of our lives. My objective was to offer an understanding of how bitcoin or ANY virtual currency that competes with what the bloodlines use to keep us in perpetual slavery, is different from the debt based system we have now. The second issue I failed to clarify was that trying to compare bitcoin to the US dollar or any of the other so called currencies is like comparing a seedling to a full grown tree, a colt to a 3 year old thoroughbred or a baby to an adult. In the evolution of things, bitcoin or any of the other virtual currencies do not, at this point in time, represent a decent comparison with “currencies” that have been in circulation for tens if not hundreds of years. My bad and I hope it did not create more confusion than it was supposed to negate.
Any form of money that is a true medium of exchange and not issued based on debt for the simple use of it, will severely threaten the cabal. If you don’t understand that the currency we use now is not currency/medium of exchange but rather paper that we have to pay interest on for the mere use of it, then I failed in my attempt to make that clear

48

For those of you familiar with the White Hats Reports, you’re aware that we have suspended publishing reports, and more importantly, failed to release report #48 as promised. I have been asked about that on numerous occasions in the recent weeks and months and feel perhaps I should address it here.

Our objective with these reports was primarily to continue the exposure of the withholding of the World Global Settlements (WGS) funds, the Wanta Funds, the CMKX debacle and the various other financial frauds perpetrated by the cabal on well meaning individuals. The primary focus was to let the cabal know that we KNEW and also to connect some dots for others (law enforcement, world leaders, etc) in the optimistic sense that they would respond in some positive way. Informing the general public at large was secondary to the main objective.
History will dictate whether the reports have had or will have any effect on the cabal’s stranglehold on humanity. I sincerely hope they do but I may not live to see that day. Our intent was always to expose the fraudulent financial system as it is the foundation for the cabal’s control of our lives. We are/were not partisan in any way as we exposed both parties in the US political arena in addition to cabalists in other countries. Our agenda was simple… to put pressure on the cabal and others in the desire to see change occur for the good of the people and all humanity.

As our readership grew, we began to see a change in the way we were perceived. It appeared that some were under the impression that we were constantly stating opinions and not reporting facts. This was and still is, amusing to us, as the complete lack of knowledge and understanding of the “game” did not prevent many from voicing opinions based on… their opinion. As I stated previously, the objective of the reports was not to convince the public of their authenticity but to put pressure on the cabal.

From the beginning, we were getting feedback through various sources that our reports were hitting the mark in terms of getting the attention of both the cabal and world leaders all around the globe. The exposure was constant and steady and in most cases, in real time as some reports detailed events that had occurred a day or two prior. All the while we were walking a fine line between exposing the truth and exposing operatives who risked everything to get us the information. In so doing, we had to keep in mind the method of exposure had to protect the ongoing flow of future information by not revealing the sources and/or methods.

I suppose the birth of report 48 occurred on February 16, 2012 when Lord David James of Blackheath courageously stood up in the House of Lords and delivered his speech exposing the $15 trillion dollar fraud perpetrated by the Federal Reserve, the US secret government, the criminal banking system and the corrupt politicians who are paid to look the other way when we the people of the US are put further in debt to support the slave status we’re all part of.

We then issued two reports in the next week which detailed not only the origination of our group but also included a copy of one of the SWIFTS for authentication. (See White Hats report #36 and #37 at http://tdarkcabal.blogspot.com/). The historic significance of this event, Lord James’ speech, cannot be underestimated. For the first time, the very essence of the cabal’s misdeeds, the financial system, was exposed for all to see. And what was the response?

Total silence.

Not one mainstream media outlet reported on the story. Not one investigation was started to look into the matter as Lord James implored his colleagues to do. And not one peep from the public for demanding an investigation and response to why $15 trillion of their money that happened to get transferred overseas to some obscure entity named Pureheart Investments, LTD.

Not one.

We had begun investigating Pureheart before Lord James’ historic speech in the House of Lords but once reports 36 and 37 were released, we were deluged with various individuals and entities reaching out to us in an effort to assist in the exposure of the real story behind Pureheart. Out of this, report #48 was born. The deeper we went down the trail, the more bizarre and mind blowing it became. For us, who’ve seen our share of bizarre and mind blowing, it was something deeper… more sinister, than we’ve ever experienced. Through this process, we were able to gather documents and information which related to Pureheart’s formation, history, alliances, key players and most important of all, their objectives. This set us on a path that took us out of the realm of the financial system and into the world of black projects, secret deals with foreign countries touted by the whore media to be our enemies, advanced technology and alien contacts.

Bits and pieces of this story had been exposed over the years. The Black Eagle Trust, the Five Star Trust, the Russell Trust, Operation “Hammer”, Yamashita’s Gold, and Confessions of an Economic Hitman are just a few of the dots that could now be connected to the secret/shadow government. As we investigated the origins, we were able to follow it through to the present day and Pureheart.
Pureheart is the conduit for pilfering money out of the financial system and taking it down that dark hole into the abyss, only to resurface in several different places, all for the advancement of the cabal’s control over humanity. Black projects, false flags, payoffs and bribes to politicians and public officials, blackmail, murder, assassination, satanic rituals, agreements with off-worlders and numerous and ongoing crimes against humanity. The denial of access to the secret technology that the masses pay for but the cabal utilizes in order to better control us and systematically take away our sovereign rights.

The origins of Pureheart trace back to GOT, SA (Global Oil Traders), two Saudi kings, Lucky Luciano and the five originators of the secret government (hence, the Five Star Trust) Bush, Sr., Edward Lansdale, William Colby, Roberto Ferrara aka Lorin Rosier and Richard Armitage. Ferrera faking his own death and recreated as Lorin Rossier, living in a safe house in Europe with an underground tunnel system that allows him to come and go without being surveilled. A corporate attorney (former) of Pureheart who reached out to us giving us information and claiming the cabal possessed technology advanced 10,000 years of what is in the public domain.
A compelling story, to say the least.

Pureheart is a GSE which stands for Government-Sponsored Enterprise. Other examples of a GSE are Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and FICO. I guarantee if you look up the purpose and function of GSEs, it won’t tell you that they were created by Congress to steal trillions of dollars of US taxpayer’s money for crimes against humanity. And that’s EXACTLY what Pureheart does and has been doing for many years.

But I digress.

When we assembled all the data… the notes of meetings, the joint venture contracts with other countries, the various documents relating to solicitations, the notes of conversations and the vetting of most of it, we came to the conclusion that it would be a major expose’ of the cabal. And I don’t use the term major lightly. Its one thing to talk or write about it, it’s entirely another to provide proof in the form of documents numbering in the hundreds of pages.

The discussion of releasing 48 spanned several days and weeks with consideration given to every conceivable response and repercussion. Pros and cons weighed and debated… sometimes heatedly… before reaching the conclusion in favor of delaying the release. We were fully cognizant of putting many people in harm’s way, including ourselves. The vast number of documents we received and contacts from information sources after Lord James’ historic speech was truly overwhelming. The cons were first and foremost our own safety and the safety of others involved directly and indirectly. We could decide to jeopardize ourselves and our families but we couldn’t make that decision for other people. Due to the nature and extreme sensitivity of the documents, the list of leakers/whistleblowers who assisted with this effort would be a very short list, easily narrowed. Another factor on the con side of things was the issue of possibly jeopardizing other phases of actions being taken at the time and are ongoing. Another factor—I’m not sure whether it’s pro or con—has to do with the fact that world leaders, politicians, etc., already knew about most of the info contained in 48. So in that regard, no new information would be provided other than perhaps some details or deals that not all were aware of.

In my mind, the apathy of the general public was the critical con factor that made the decision not to publish 48 a no-brainer. It seems no one thought… or understood… that the $15 Trillion fraud exposed by Lord James in February of 2012 impacted every taxpaying Amerikan. Most don’t know the Federal Reserve is a private corporation of cabal bankers that make the rules for themselves in the banking world without limitations. Most don’t understand that Federal income taxes are, in fact, interest payments on the debt of the out of control government. Most don’t know the dollar bills in their pockets are not cash but debt with the cabal given the freewheeling authority to print dollars ad infinitum because the Amerikan citizens are the collateral on the debt. Most don’t realize the reason an illegal alien is allowed to hold the office of President is because the US is a corporation and they have no such restrictions (being a US citizen) on corporate officers. And most don’t realize that the political parties are two sides of the same coin and have long ago sold us out to their financial contributors and corporate benefactors.

And even the ones who know all of the above are not doing enough. Just knowing isn’t enough… action needs to be taken or nothing will change. Perhaps it hasn’t dawned on everyone that the cavalry isn’t coming, the ET’s aren’t going to intervene and save us and no religious idols/icons are going to wave their hands and all will be good again.

The deafening silence after Lord James’ speech was evidence that our reports, at least from the reading public’s standpoint, had become nothing more than episodes in an ongoing drama serial that were mere entertainment. Like a Robert Ludlum spy novel or a Jerry Bruckheimer action movie.
If your house is on fire and you’ve been informed it’s on fire and you do nothing about it, what’s the point of having a smoke detector?

Now… this is not to say that at some appropriate point in time in the future, 48 won’t be released. Every precaution has been taken to preserve both the integrity of the report and security of the documents. I have been informed that our reports have made an impact and changes are occurring for the better as a result. Personally, I see very little sign of that but I remain hopeful. I do know the cabal has been seriously challenged on their plans and agenda but I’m not convinced we’re going to be any better off trading one type of tyranny for another.

Apologies are extended to those of our readers who were not given an explanation after the ill advised and ill conceived publicity and build up surrounding the release of report 48. Hopefully this will put the issue to rest, at least for the time being. However, I’ll provide this link to a report one of our colleagues put out that gives an overview of what we discovered. There are hundreds of pages of documents that back up the information contained in this report.

http://www.oneworldofnations.com/2013/12/our-last-stand-report-3-stories-of-our.html
The follow up information articulated by Kerry should also be read to connect all the dots.
http://projectcamelotportal.com/blog/31-kerrys-blog/1404-black-projects-follow-the-money

http://projectcamelotportal.com/2013-10-03-15-53-21/paladin-s-blog/2104-about-48-paladin-speaks-out

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